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инфекции и паразиты

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Bartter syndrome

статья про Bartter syndromeDefinition

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of rare conditions that affect the kidneys.

See also: Aldosterone testAlternative Names

Potassium wasting; Salt-wasting nephropathyCauses, incidence, and risk factors

There are five gene defects known to be associated with Bartter syndrome. The condition is present from before birth (congenital).

The condition is thought to be caused by a defect in the kidney's ability to reabsorb sodium. Persons with Bartter syndrome lose too much sodium through the urine. This causes a rise in the level of the hormone aldosterone and makes the kidneys remove too much potassium from the body. This is known as potassium wasting. The condition also results in an abnormal acid balance in the blood called hypokalemic alkalosis.Symptoms

This disease usually occurs in childhood. Symptoms include:ConstipationGrowth failureIncreased frequency of urinationLow blood pressureKidney stoneMuscle cramping and weaknessSigns and tests

The diagnosis of Bartter...


Bartholin’s abscess

статья про Bartholin’s abscessDefinition

Bartholin's abscess is the buildup of pus that forms a lump (swelling) in one of the Bartholin's glands, which are located on each side of the vaginal opening.Alternative Names

Abscess - Bartholin's; Infected Bartholin's glandCauses, incidence, and risk factors

A Bartholin's abscess forms when a small opening (duct) from the gland gets blocked. Fluid in the gland builds up and may become infected. Fluid may build up over many years before an abscess occurs.

Often the abscess appears quickly over several days and become very hot and swollen. Activity that puts pressure on the vulva, and walking and sitting, may cause excruciating pain.SymptomsA tender lump on either side of the vaginal opening FeverPain with sexual intercourse Signs and tests

A pelvic examination reveals an enlarged and tender Bartholin's gland. A biopsy may be recommended in older women to rule out a...


Barrett’s esophagus

статья про Barrett’s esophagusDefinition

Barrett's esophagus is a disorder in which the lining of the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach) is damaged by stomach acid.

See also: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)Causes, incidence, and risk factors

When you eat, food passes from the throat to the stomach through the esophagus (also called the food pipe or swallowing tube). Once food is in the stomach, a ring of muscles keeps it from leaking backward into the esophagus.

If these muscles do not close tightly, stomach acid can leak back into the esophagus. This is called reflux or gastroesophageal reflux.

This reflux may cause symptoms of heartburn. It may also damage the lining of the esophagus, which is referred to as Barrett's esophagus.

Barrett's esophagus occurs more often in men than women. You are more likely to have this condition if you have had GERD for a long...


Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

статья про Barbiturate intoxication and overdoseDefinition

Barbiturates are a type of depressant drug that cause relaxation and sleepiness. In relatively low doses, barbiturates and alcohol have very similar clinical syndromes of intoxication.

However, excessive and prolonged dosages of barbiturate drugs, such as phenobarbital, may produce the following chronic symptoms: memory loss, irritability, changes in alertness, and decreased interpersonal functioning. Barbiturates may also cause an acute overdose syndrome, which is life-threatening.Alternative Names

Intoxication - barbituratesCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Barbiturate abuse is still a major addiction problem in the population, although it has been partly replaced by addiction to other depressant drugs more commonly prescribed, such as benzodiazepines.

Though most people who take these medications for seizure disorders or pain syndromes do not abuse them, many...



статья про BalanitisDefinition

Balanitis is an inflammation of the foreskin and head of the penis.Alternative Names

BalanoposthitisCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Balanitis is usually caused by poor hygiene in uncircumcised men. The inflammation can be due to infection, harsh soaps, or failure to properly rinse soap off while bathing. Several other diseases, including reactive arthritis and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, can lead to balanitis. Men with uncontrolled diabetes are at risk of developing balanitis.SymptomsRedness of foreskin or penisOther rashes on the head of the penisFoul-smelling dischargePainful penis and foreskinSigns and tests

Your dermatologist or urologist may be able to diagnosis the cause of your balanitis by examination alone. However, additional skin tests for viruses, fungi, or bacteria are often needed. Occasionally, a skin biopsy is required.Treatment



Baker’s cyst

статья про Baker’s cystDefinition

Baker's cyst is a buildup of joint fluid (synovial fluid) that forms behind the knee.Alternative Names

Popliteal cyst; Bulge-kneeCauses, incidence, and risk factors

A Baker's cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in synovial fluid - the fluid that lubricates the knee joint. When pressure builds up, fluid bulges into the back of the knee.

Baker's cyst commonly occurs with:A tear in the meniscal cartilage of the kneeKnee arthritis (in older adults)Rheumatoid arthritisOther knee problemsSymptoms

A large cyst may cause some discomfort or stiffness, but there are often no symptoms. There may be a painless or painful swelling behind the knee.

The cyst may feel like a water-filled balloon. Sometimes, the cyst may break open (rupture), causing pain, swelling, and bruising on the back of the knee and calf.

It is important to know whether...


Bacterial gastroenteritis

статья про Bacterial gastroenteritisDefinition

Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria.Alternative Names

Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterialCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Many different types of bacteria can cause bacterial gastroenteritis, including:Campylobacter jejuni (see: Campylobacter enteritis)E. coli (see: E. coli enteritis)Salmonella (see: Salmonella enteritis)Shigella (see: Shigella enteritis)StaphylococcusYersinia

Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food containing the bacteria. The condition more commonly occurs after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants.

Bacteria may get into your food in different ways:Meat or poultry may come into contact with intestinal bacteria when being processedWater...



статья про BronchiolitisDefinition

Bronchiolitis is swelling and mucus buildup in the smallest air passages in the lungs (bronchioles), usually due to a viral infection.Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Bronchiolitis usually affects children under the age of 2, with a peak age of 3 - 6 months. It is a common, and sometimes severe illness. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause. Other viruses that can cause bronchiolitis include:AdenovirusInfluenzaParainfluenza

The virus is transmitted from person to person by direct contact with nasal fluids, or by airborne droplets. Although RSV generally causes only mild symptoms in an adult, it can cause severe illness in an infant.

Bronchiolitis is seasonal and appears more often in the fall and winter months. It is a very common reason for infants to be hospitalized during winter and early spring. It is estimated that by their first year, more...



статья про BronchiectasisDefinition

Bronchiectasis is destruction and widening of the large airways.If the condition is present at birth, it is called congenital bronchiectasis.If it develops later in life, it is called acquired bronchiectasis.Alternative Names

Acquired bronchiectasis; Congenital bronchiectasisCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Bronchiectasis is often caused by recurrent inflammation or infection of the airways. It most often begins in childhood as a complication from infection or inhaling a foreign object.

Cystic fibrosis causes about a third of all bronchiectasis cases in the United States. Certain genetic conditions can also cause bronchiectasis, including primary ciliary dyskinesia and immunodeficiency syndromes.

The condition can also be caused by routinely breathing in food particles while eating.Symptoms

Symptoms often develop gradually, and may occur months or years after the...


Brief reactive psychosis

статья про Brief reactive psychosisDefinition

Brief reactive psychosis is a sudden, short-term display of psychotic behavior, such as hallucinations or delusions, that occurs with a stressful event.Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Brief reactive psychosis is triggered by extreme stress (such as a traumatic accident or loss of a loved one), and is followed by a return to the previous level of function. The person may or may not be aware of the strange behavior.

This condition most often affects people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. People who have personality disorders are at greater risk for having a brief reactive psychosis.Symptoms

Symptoms of brief reactive psychosis may include the following:Disorganized behaviorFalse ideas about what is taking place (delusions)Hearing or seeing things that aren't real (hallucinations)Strange speech or language

The symptoms are not due to alcohol or other drug abuse and they...


Breath holding spell

статья про Breath holding spellDefinition

A breath holding spell is an involuntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness. It usually occurs in response to an upsetting or surprising situation.Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Breath holding is seen in some normal children from as early as age 2 months, but it can start as late as 2 years old. A small number of children have severe spells. Usually the spells stop by the time a child reaches ages 6 - 8.

Breath holding spells appear to be a response to fear, confrontation, a traumatic event (for example: pain), or to being startled. The sudden reaction can cause the nervous system to temporarily slow the heart rate or breathing, causing breath holding and color changes.

Although they often occur with tantrums, breath holding spells are not thought to be a willful act of defiance.

Breath holding spells can run in families. If a child's...