инфекции и паразитывопросы инфекционные и паразитарные заболевания

инфекции и паразиты

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статья про BowlegsDefinition

Bowlegs is a condition in which the knees stay wide apart when a person stands with the feet and ankles together. In children under 18 months, it is considered normal.Alternative Names

Genu varumCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Infants are born bowlegged because of their folded position in the uterus. The infant's bowed legs begin to straighten once the child starts to walk and the legs begin to bear weight (about 12 to 18 months old).

By around age 3, the child can usually stand with the ankles apart and the knees just touching. If the bowed legs are still present, the child is called bowlegged.

Bowlegs may be caused by illnesses such as:Blount's diseaseBone dysplasias (abnormal development)Fractures that do not heal correctlyLead or fluoride poisoningRickets, which is caused by a vitamin D deficiencySymptomsKnees do not touch when standing with feet together (ankles touching)Bowing of legs is same on both side of the body (symmetrical)Bowed legs continue beyond...



статья про BotulismDefinition

Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds, or they may live in improperly canned or preserved food.Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Clostridium botulinum is found in soil and untreated water throughout the world. It produces spores that survive in improperly preserved or canned food, where they produce toxin. When eaten, even tiny amounts of this toxin can lead to severe poisoning.

The foods most commonly contaminated are home-canned vegetables, cured pork and ham, smoked or raw fish, and honey or corn syrup. Botulism may also occur if the organism enters open wounds and produces toxin there.

Infant botulism occurs when living bacteria or its spores are eaten and grow within the baby's gastrointestinal tract. The most common cause of infant botulism is eating honey or corn...


Borderline personality disorder

статья про Borderline personality disorderDefinition

Borderline personality disorder is a condition in which people have long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent emotions, such as feelings about themselves and others.

These inner experiences often cause them to take impulsive actions and have chaotic relationships.Alternative Names

Personality disorder - borderlineCauses, incidence, and risk factors

The causes of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles.

Risk factors for BPD include:Abandonment in childhood or adolescenceDisrupted family lifePoor communication in the familySexual abuse

This personality disorder tends to occur more often in women and among hospitalized psychiatric patients.Symptoms

People with BPD are often uncertain about their identity. As a result, their interests and values may change rapidly.

People with BPD also tend to see...



статья про ByssinosisDefinition

Byssinosis is a disease of the lungs brought on by breathing in cotton dust or dusts from other vegetable fibers such as flax, hemp, or sisal while at work.

See also: Occupational asthmaAlternative Names

Cotton worker's lung; Cotton bract disease; Mill fever; Brown lungCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Breathing in the dust produced by raw cotton can cause byssinosis. It is most common in people who work in the textile industry. Those who are sensitive to the dust can have an asthma-like condition after being exposed. In those with asthma, being exposed to the dust makes breathing more difficult, but in byssinosis, the symptoms usually go away by the end of the work week. After long periods of exposure, symptoms can continue throughout the week without improving.

Methods of prevention in the U.S. have reduced the number of cases, but byssinosis is still common in...



статья про BursitisDefinition

Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone. The condition may be acute or chronic.Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Bursae are fluid-filled cavities near joints where tendons or muscles pass over bony projections. They assist movement and reduce friction between moving parts.

Bursitis can be caused by chronic overuse, trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or infection. Sometimes the cause cannot be determined. Bursitis commonly occurs in the shoulder, knee, elbow, and hip. Other areas that may be affected include the Achilles tendon and the foot.

Chronic inflammation can occur with repeated injuries or attacks of bursitis.Symptoms

You may notice:Joint pain and tenderness when you press around the jointStiffness and achiness when you move the affected jointSwelling, warmth or redness over the...


Burkitt lymphoma

статья про Burkitt lymphomaDefinition

Burkitt lymphoma is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Alternative Names

B-cell lymphoma; High-grade B-cell lymphomaCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Burkitt lymphoma was first discovered in children in certain parts of Africa, but it also occurs in the United States.

The African type of Burkitt lymphoma is closely associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the main cause of infectious mononucleosis. The North American form of Burkitt lymphoma is not linked to EBV.

Burkitt lymphoma is most often seen in males.Symptoms

Burkitt lymphoma may first be noticed as a swelling of the lymph nodes (glands) in the neck, groin, or under the arm. These swollen lymph nodes are often painless, but can grow very rapidly.

In the types commonly seen in the United States, the cancer usually starts in the belly area (abdomen). The disease can also start in the...



статья про BunionsDefinition

A bunion is when your big toe points toward the second toe. This causes a bump on the inside edge of your toe.Alternative Names

Hallux valgusCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Bunions occur more commonly in women and can sometimes run in families. People born with abnormal bones in their feet are more likely to form a bunion. Wearing narrow-toed, high-heeled shoes may lead to the development of a bunion. The condition may become painful as extra bone and a fluid-filled sac grow at the base of the big toe.

SymptomsRed, calloused skin along the inside edge of the big toeA bony bump at this sitePain over the joint, aggravated by pressure from shoesBig toe turned toward the other toesSigns and tests

A doctor can usually diagnose a bunion by looking at it. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot and, in some cases, arthritis.Treatment

When a...


Bullous pemphigoid

статья про Bullous pemphigoidDefinition

Bullous pemphigoid is a skin disorder characterized by large blisters.Causes, incidence, and risk factors

The cause is not known, but may be related to immune system disorders.

Bullous pemphigoid usually occurs in elderly persons and is rare in young people. Symptoms come and go. In most patients, the condition goes away within 6 years.Symptoms

Some people may have no symptoms, others may have mild redness and irration.

In severe cases, they are multiple blisters, called bullae. The blisters are usually located on the arms, legs, or middle of the body. About one-third of persons with bullous pemphigoid also develop blisters in the mouth. The blisters may break open and form ulcers or open sores.

Other symptoms may include:ItchingRashesMouth soresBleeding gumsSigns and tests

Tests that may be done to help diagnose this condition include: Blood testsSkin lesion...



статья про BulimiaDefinition

Bulimia is an illness in which a person binges on food or has regular episodes of significant overeating and feels a loss of control. The affected person then uses various methods -- such as vomiting or laxative abuse -- to prevent weight gain.

Many (but not all) people with bulimia also have anorexia nervosa.Alternative Names

Bulimia nervosa; Binge-purge behavior; Eating disorder - bulimiaCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Many more women than men have bulimia, and the disorder is most common in adolescent girls and young women. The affected person is usually aware that her eating pattern is abnormal and may experience fear or guilt with the binge-purge episodes.

The exact cause of bulimia is unknown. Genetic, psychological, trauma, family, society, or cultural factors may play a role. Bulimia is likely due to more than one factor.Symptoms

In bulimia, eating binges...



статья про BruxismDefinition

Bruxism is when you clench (tightly hold your top and bottom teeth together) or grind (slide your teeth back and forth over each other) your teeth.Alternative Names

Teeth grinding and clenchingCauses, incidence, and risk factors

People can clench and grind without being aware of it during both the day and night, although sleep-related bruxism is often the bigger problem because it is harder to control.

The cause of bruxism is not completely agreed upon, but daily stress may be the trigger in many people. Some people probably clench their teeth and never feel symptoms. Whether or not bruxism causes pain and other problems may be a complicated mix of factors: How much stress you are underHow long and tightly you clench and grindWhether your teeth are misalignedYour postureYour ability to relaxYour dietYour sleeping habits

Each person is probably...



статья про BrucellosisDefinition

Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by contact with animals carrying bacteria called Brucella.Alternative Names

Rock fever; Cyprus fever; Undulant fever; Gibraltar fever; Malta fever; Mediterranean feverCauses, incidence, and risk factors

Brucella can infect cattle, goats, camels, dogs, and pigs. The bacteria can spread to humans if you come in contact with infected meat or the placenta of infected animals, or if you eat or drink unpasteurized milk or cheese.

Brucellosis is rare in the United States, with approximately 100 - 200 cases each year.

People working in jobs requiring frequent contact with animals or meat -- such as slaughterhouse workers, farmers, and veterinarians -- are at high risk.Symptoms

Acute brucellosis may begin with mild flu-like symptoms or symptoms such as:FeverAbdominal painBack painChillsExcessive sweatingFatigueHeadacheLoss of...